The Amsterdam pipe maker Eduard Bird, a review of his life and work (abstract)
De Amsterdamse pijpenmaker Eduard Bird, een levensschets
The life story of the most striking and most important Amsterdam pipe maker from the Golden Age.
Abstract, see for the full text the Dutch version.
Edward Bird is unquestionable one of the most interesting and intriguing pipe makers from Amsterdam. Although he lived over three hundred years ago we know quite a lot about him. His products were sold – and now found as archaeological evidence - in all parts of the world. On top of that an amazing number of relevant written sources on Bird are known due to research in the rich city archives of Amsterdam. This article sketches the life of this important pipe maker by illustrating the archives with the produced pipes that witness his successful craft and trade.
During the first half of the seventeenth century lots of refugees from abroad came to Amsterdam, the active and growing harbor city in Holland. People from England, Scotland, the North-German states, the southern Low Countries and France had reason to escape their own land in search for a new future. Among them was Eduard Bird, born around 1610 in Stoke, Surrey, England.
The oldest record that mentions Eduard Bird dates from 1630 when he is 20 years of age and announced his marriage. Since he is still a minor, he needs the consent of his parents for his marriage, so he claims that both have died, which can be true or not. His bride to be is Aaltje Goverts, 18 years old. In August 1630 they married and found a simple lodge in some obscure alley in the city centre. Between 1632 and 1658 nine children were born who got well known Dutch names like Jan, Govert, Evert. Only one son reached his adolescence. *)
The name of Bird was noted many times by city clerks, always phonetically recorded. So many variations exist: Bird, Birth, Bord, Bort, Burd, Bjirt, Bieret. Even his Christian name can be spelled Edward, Eduard or even Evert, becoming more common Dutch.
His marriage certificate mentions Bird as tobacco pipe maker, employed by an English pipe maker in the popular part of the city, the Jordaan. His sister-in-law married another pipe maker, so he got well involved into this craft. In 1638 Eduard started his own workshop as a pipe maker after becoming an freeman. This was needed to start a business, as a foreigner he could only enter a craft that was not governed by a guild that allowed only born Dutchmen. Pipe making, just like the tobacco trade was free. Differently from most English pipe makers in Amsterdam who stay all their live employed, Bird strived for an independent workshop which he realized in 1638. His success is proven by the acquisition of a newly built house on the Egelantiersgracht, meant as an investment. Another investment is his loan to Brian Newton from Herefordshire, who needed money for his equipment as captain on board of the ship of Pieter Stuyvesant sailing to the New Netherlands. This relation would bring him many advantages in the trade of Edward. **)
In 1654 Bird really showed that he well succeeded in his financial activities, he bought for over 5,500 guilders a double house on the prominent Rozengracht, in the middle of the quarter where pipe makers and all kinds of other tradesman were located. This double house was spacious enough to house both the family and an extensive workshop. In the pipe makers trade this was really an exceptional possession and status; only one or two Amsterdam pipe makers could afford a house of their own, let alone the wealth that Bird showed as we will see later.
His personal life was not that easy. Only four years later his wife died at the age of 45. She was buried in the imposing Westerkerk. Half a year later Eduard, left behind with only one son, aged 13 and called after his father Evert junior, married for the second time. Again ten years later, in 1664, Eduard made up his last will, just in time for his death on 20 May 1665. For his burial fifteen guilders were paid, which characterizes him more as a tradesman than as a craftsman such as a pipe maker. At the age of 20 his son Evert junior inherited all the property, his widow inherited a lifelong stay in the house along Lauriergracht.
The most important and extremely interesting document form the life of Edward Bird is the inventory made up after his death in 1665. In eleven pages this document gives a complete image of the living and working of this family. The private house was not large in numbers of rooms, but most luxurious and showing off a remarkable status. One room was furnished with a grand Dutch cupboard in ebony veneered oak. This contained a wealth of large silver objects, next to several piles of linen, the common representation household which we know so well from the paintings of Pieter De Hoogh. The room was embellished with lots of Chinese porcelain, no less than 45 pieces, and several paintings. A second room, both living room and bedroom for the couple, was furnished in blue, in the curtains of the bed, the cushions on the oak chairs around the table with its Persian tapestry table cloth and again with blue Chinese porcelain. Most unusual, however, were three large painted portraits in black ebony frames showing the deceased, his first wife and his son. Two smaller rooms had the function of wardrobe, with a luxurious set of clothing and garments. The kitchen and small backyard complete the house. ***)
The other half of the premises functioned as the workshop for the pipe production. The pipes were moulded on the first floor with eight benches for as many pipe makers. Downstairs girls or women did the trimming and packing into ceramic pots for the firing. A clay shed and private behind the house were other necessities. The inventory lists also the readymade pipes in stock which sums up to 465,000 clay pipes, which is 3,230 gross packed in 134 boxes. Based on the number of workers it is possible to calculate that 160 gross of pipes were made weekly. So we can conclude that the stock represented twenty weeks of work. Another calculation gives the average price per gross, and the shipments per order. A regular order was about 180 gross, although the biggest client paid for 1,100 gross at once. It is evident that Bird concentrated on large orders, for which he not only employed his own workers but he could also engage independent pipe makers to produce for him. For that reason Bird possessed 34 pipe moulds in total. ****)
The products from the firm of Bird are known from archaeological finds and can be interpreted and dated by their change in appearance from 1640 to 1660. The typical Amsterdam double-conical shape is followed by a slender one. After 1650 the style followed the current Gouda fashion, although not as refined. The most characteristic pipe style Bird produced and brought him good fortune, was the elbow pipe, a European copy of the indigenous pipes of the North American Indians. *****)
When Evert junior took over the business, he married, became owner of the house on Rozengracht and continued to produce clay pipes with the EB mark. Up to 1672 he had a joint venture with a potter nearby who baked his pipes. Due to harsh competition in the pipe trade and difficulties in the export, Evert’s business went downwards. In 1678 he was obliged to sell his investment house on Egelantiersgracht, in 1683 even his own house along the Rozengracht; the latter for much less than his father paid for it. In the mean time he had established trade contacts with the pipe merchant Adriaen van der Cruis from Gouda. This man took over the ownership of the EB mark and stared shipping these pipes. His orders continued in such extend that he finally put his orders for the production not exclusively at the workshop of Evert Bird junior, but also at pipe makers in Gouda. Pipes marked EB from this period are recognizable by style, shape and decoration. After 1700 the production of EB pipes seemed to have seized. Evert Junior died about 1692, leaving his son also named Evert Bird the trade for a while. The third generation will concentrate on a trade in French wine, just like his brother Arnoldus did.
We can conclude that Evert Bird I was much more than an average pipe maker. His possessions in investments, workshop and trade stock, house and interiors, in one word his status was much more than that. For sure he quickly adopted the Dutch culture and was blessed with a good commercial feeling. He will have used his opulent house to impress his customers and trade relations, if not he traded in art and antiques himself to provide an additional income. We know that Bird did much more than making clay tobacco pipes, he traded in pipes in a much larger scale than he could produce in his own workshop. With over 4,000 guilders in outstanding orders, he was a successful tradesman. His good communicative skills apparently worked out well, both in Amsterdam and with trade partners as far as the New Netherlands.
Unfortunately his son spoiled his assets in a few years time, he transferred the right to mark pipes with the lucrative EB-mark to Van der Cruis, got possibly in exchange a trade in wines and, finally, took over a potters workshop with marginal local selling. On top of that he had to sell the fine house and without doubts the luxurious household. To step into his father’s footsteps was too much to ask from a twenty year old boy. However, the name of Edward Bird will forever be related to the Amsterdam clay pipes that are so common in the New Netherlands in the times of Peter Stuyvesant. The archaeological finds in and around New York bear witness of their popularity at that time, the Amsterdam archives unveil the historical background of this interesting pipe maker and tradesman.
© Don Duco, Stichting Pijpenkabinet, Amsterdam – the Netherlands, 2002
1. records on the marriage, birth and burial of all children are existent
2. records of his houses, trade, apprentice are existent
3. the inventory of Bird’s house and workshop is known in detail
4. prices and total of produced pipes are known or can be calculated, based on evidence in other archives from that period
5. all type styles produces by Bird, know from archaeological excavations, will be illustrated
a. Marriage announcement.
b. The house along the Egelantiersgracht owned by Eduard Bird.
c. Map of the double house of Eduard Bird on Rozengracht in Amsterdam, reconstruction and drawing by H.J. Zantkuyl in De Roever, 1987.
d. The famous painting by Jan Steen called "Soo d'oude songen pijpen de jongen", this painting was hanging in the front-house of Bird on the Rozengracht.
e. The inventory mentioning the workshop written down by notary Jacobus Hellerius in May 1665.
f. The inventory mentioning the stock of pipes.
- Tobacco pipe with bi-conical bowl, heel and straight stem. Milling stem side bowl opening. Stem gravity nine lilies in diamonds. Amsterdam, Eduard Bird, 1640-1645.
Amsterdam, Pijpenkabinet collections Pk 16.223
- Tobacco pipe with bi-conical bowl, heel and straight stem. Milling round the bowl opening. Stem gravity four stamps with lily in diamond. Heel mark EB with two leaves. Amsterdam, Eduard Bird, 1645-1655.
Amsterdam, Pijpenkabinet collections Pk 3.225
- Tobacco pipe with bi-conical bowl, heel and straight stem. Milling round the bowl opening. Stem gravity four stamps with lily in diamond. Amsterdam, Eduard Bird, 1645-1655.
Amsterdam, Pijpenkabinet collections Pk 2.350
- Tobacco pipe with slender slight bi-conical bowl, heel and straight stem. Milling round the bowl opening. Surface lightly stroke burnished. Amsterdam, Eduard Bird, 1645-1655.
Amsterdam, Pijpenkabinet collections Pk 2.858
- Tobacco pipe with bi-conical bowl, heel and straight stem. Milling round the bowl opening. Amsterdam, Eduard Bird, 1655-1670.
Amsterdam, Pijpenkabinet collections Pk 3.466
- Tobacco pipe with bi-conical bowl, heel and straight stem. Milling round the bowl opening. Bowl and stem stroke burnished. Amsterdam, Eduard Bird, 1655-1670.
Amsterdam, Pijpenkabinet collections Pk 3.317
- Tobacco pipe with cylindrical bowl, without heel and straight stem, so-called elbow pipe. Milling round the bowl opening. Amsterdam, Eduard Bird, 1645-1670.
Amsterdam, Pijpenkabinet collections Pk 9.568a
- Tobacco pipe with bi-conical bowl, heel and straight stem. Milling round the bowl opening. Stem gravity two rings with millings. Gouda, Jan Jonasz. de Vriend ?, 1670-1685.
Amsterdam, Pijpenkabinet collections Pk 3.351a
- Tobacco pipe with bi-conical bowl, heel and straight stem. Milling round the bowl opening. Stem gravity two rings with millings and pearl borders. Gouda, 1680-1695.
Amsterdam, Pijpenkabinet collections Pk 3.351b
- D.H. Duco, De kleipijp in de zeventiende eeuwse Nederlanden, Oxford, 1981, p 155. D.H. Duco, De Nederlandse kleipijp, handboek voor dateren en determineren, Leiden, 1987, p 33.
- F.H.W. Friederich, Pijpelogie, Voorburg, 1975, p 62. Edward Bird, Lerry (Surrey ?), marriage 29-06-1630, heel mark EB. John McCashion, 'Clay Tobacco Pipes of the New York State', New York State Archaeological Association, 65, November1975. Don Duco, 'Pijp en tabak in Amsterdam', Nieuwsbulletin Pijpenkamer Icon, I-2, 1975, p 10. Edward Bird (Burt), Lerry (Surrey ?), 1630, Cocksteeg. Ditto, p 12. illustration 1 (slender bowl with heel mark EB). Duco, (Nederlanden), 1981, p 155.
- Margriet de Roever, 'The Fort Orange "EB" pipe bowls: an investigation of the origin of American objects in Dutch seventeenth-century documents', New World Dutch Studies, Dutch Arts and Culture in Colonial America 1609-1776, Albany, 1987, pp 51-61.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 482/137, Marriage announcement, 18-06-1661. As place of origin Stook is mentioned.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 436/18, Marriage announcement, 29-06-1630. Appeared like before Eduwart Burt of Zerry, tobacco pipe maker, living in the Cock alley, without parents and Aaltie Govaert of Amsterdam, aged 18, without parents, assisted by Magdalena Govaert her sister, living like before. These persons were married on the 18th of August 1630 in Sloten by Hans Lamberti, clergyman.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 445/290, Marriage announcement, 21-11-1636. Appeared like before Jan Claess van IJsendijck, tobacco pipe maker, living along the Lauriergracht, aged 26, without parents and Magdalena Gooverts from Amsterdam, widow of Jan Andriesz., declaring to be widow for a year, living like before. He signed Jan Clasen.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 42/299, Baptismal Nieuwe Kerk, 09-03-1642. Evert Bort, Aeltje Govers, Magdalena Govers, child Jan. GA Amsterdam, DTB 42/347, Baptismal Nieuwe Kerk, 01-03-1643. Evert Bort, Aeltje Goverts, Magdalena Goverts, child Jacobus. GA Amsterdam, DTB 43/7, Baptismal Nieuwe Kerk, 17-06-1646. Evert Bort, Aeltje Govert, Magdalena Govert, child Govert. GA Amsterdam, DTB 43/58, Baptismal Nieuwe Kerk, 17-11-1647. Evert Burt, Aeltje Govers, Magdalena Govers, child Evert. GA Amsterdam, DTB 1100B/25, Burials book Walenkerk, 17-08-1652. 17: a child of Evert Birdt, Lauriergraft ƒ 5.7.-. GA Amsterdam, DTB 105/6, Baptismal Walenkerk, 12-04-1654. Evert Bort, Aeltie Goverts, Jasper Wouters, child Jacobus. GA Amsterdam, DTB 43/58, Baptismal Nieuwe Kerk, 17-11-1647. Evert Burt, Aeltje Govers and witness Govers, child Evert.
- Duco, (Nederlanden), Oxford, 1981, p 155.
- GA Amsterdam, Freeman book E, 14-08-1638.
- GA Amsterdam, NA 1026a, fol 505, notary Sebastiaan van der Piet, 24-08-1644. Pupil is Willem Jonas, aged about 13 in service for four years. As salary the boy received food and the costs of living and at the moment of leaving a good set of clothing. His father is obliged to bring the boy in the same kind of clothing.
- The last alley in the Bloemdwarsstraat. De Roever, 1987, p 56. Builder was Wiggert Duizenddaalders. Price unknown.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 1100B/25, Burials book Walenkerk, 17-08-1652. 17: a child of Evert Birdt, Lauriergraft ƒ 5.7.-.
- De Roever, 1987, p 56.
- De Roever, 1987, p 56.
- GA Amsterdam, WD 9, fol 129, 131, 24-06-1654. AWD 3, fol 58, 10-07-1654.
- GA Amsterdam, RA 2169, fol 9700, Execution remission, 25-01-1655. Wij Nicolaes van Loon ende Cornelis Geelvinck etc. dat op den 25 Januarij Ao. 1655 bij Executie der selve stede (Amsterdam) vercoft is aan Evert Birt, tabaxpijpmaecker een huijs ende erve staende op de Roose graft aen de noortzijde, tusschen de twee middelste bruggen belendt een gang aen de oostsijde ende Jan Reijndersz. Item de Hr. Burgermr. Pater ende Evert Birt staende aende zuijtsijde, streckende voor van de straeten tot achter aen met een gemenen muijr. In allen schijn etc. toebehoort hebben de boedel van Jacob Schuijf, huijstimmerman voor 2216 gulden. Evert Bird te borden gebracht etc. 28 febr. 1657.
- GA Amsterdam, RA 2172, fol 223v, Execution remission, 14-03-1685. The address of the document: between the second and third bridge, belonged to Everd Bord, pipe maker. At present between the Bloemdwarsstraat and the Akoleienstraat.
- Duco, (Nederlanden), 1981, p 255, fig 176, map.
- GA Amsterdam, RA 51 (H2), 12, Execution remission, 11-03-1660. Wij Nicos. van Eb de Capelle ende Pelgr. ten Grootenhuijs, schepenen in Amstelr. oirconden en de kennen dat voor ons gecompt. is Barent Pietersz., bierdrager ende gelieve vercoft opgedragen ende quijtgescholden te hebben Evert Birdt, die helfte van een gangh breet in 't geheel vier voeten ende lang taghentichg voeten, leggende aen de oostzijde van de Roesegraft, belent die coper aen westzijde ende Pelgrom aende oostzijde, streckende voor van de straet tot achter aen copers poortgen.
- The inventory of 1665 mentions that these houses were given in rent for 20 to 28 guilders per six monthes, yearly these six houses result as income about 300 guilders.
- Don Duco, 'Een Amsterdamse pijpmaker-pottenbakker', Het Profiel, season 1979-1980, no 4, pp 5-7.
- Don Duco, 'De pijpmakerij van Heptenstal, een pre-industrieel bedrijf', Leiden, 1992.
- GA Amsterdam, ONA 2198, fol 491, notary Adriaen Lock, 22-04-1655. Statement by Willem Hendrixs., pipe maker on request of Evert Bird on a portion of clay from Hessen.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 482/137, Marriage announcement, 18-06-1661. Den 18 Junij 1661 voor den heeren C. Alblas etc. Evert Bird van Stook, toebaxpijpmaker, wednr. van Aaltje Goverts, woont op de Rosengragt en de Anna Maria van der Heijde van Oudewater, wede van Jeremias Lukin, wonende op 't Rockin. Marge: E.K. zij en hij hebben de weescamer voldaen. Hij den 20 Junij ende sij tot Oudewater. Hij tekent Evert Bird.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 44/2, Baptismal Nieuwe Kerk, 22-03-1662. Evert Bort, Anna Maria van der Heijde, Pieter van der Heijde, Anna Maria Birt, child Johannes.
- GA Amsterdam, ONA 2491, fol 379, notary Jacobus Hellerius, 12-06-1664.
- GA Amsterdam, Burials 20, 20-05-1665. Evert Bird op de Rooze graft, 15.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 491/247, Marriage announcement, 07-01-1668. Appeared as before Henric Gerdes of Weel, suijckerbacker (sugar manufacturer) age 36 years, parents deceased, assisted with Jan Carstende, living in Nes and Anna Maria van der Heijden from Hanckenden (?) widow of Evert Birt, living along Lauriergracht. He signs Gerdesz..
- GA Amsterdam, Freeman book 3, fol 242, 06-07-1668. Hendrick Gerdus, tobacco pipe maker and freeman, originating from Wedel and married to Anna Maria van der Heijde, widow of Evert Bieret, tobacco pipe maker.
- GA Amsterdam, ONA 2482, fol 705-715, notary Jacobus Hellerius, 22-05-1665.
- The inventory mentions another time 6 ordinary paintings and an old miror, these however were double mentioned.
- These boxes were registered containing 12 gross but in the margin it is statet that this is an error and they contain 8 gross per box.
- De Roever gives as total over 376,000 clay pipes. R. de Haan & W. Krook, 'Amsterdam', chapter in De kleipijp als bodemvondst, Leiden, 1988, p 18. Their total is 616,608 clay pipes.
- D.H. Duco, De techniek van het pijpmakersbedrijf te Gouda, Oxford, 1980, p 144. The production is calculated after the maximum production of the year 1918 and is altered because of longer stems.
- A box of 25 gross costs ƒ 20,70 per gross this is ƒ 0,82. Porcelain quality pipes from Gouda cost in 1660 70 cents per gross. Packing and transport to Amsterdam make the price go up (G1660-08-30).
- Duco, (Handboek), 1987, p. 36.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 488/332, Marriage announcement, 09-04-1666. Compareerden als voren Evert Bird van A(msterdam), toebacxpijpmaecker, oud 20 jaer, geasstr. met sijn voogd Mathijs van Gangel, d. Jan Carstensz. de Bruijn, woont op de Rosegracht ende Susanna Ubelmans van A(msterdam), out 20 jaer, geass. met Johanna Lepers haer moeder, woont int Warmoesstraet. He signs Evert Bird, she signs Susanna Ubelmans.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 106/239, Baptismal Walenkerk, 06-02-1667. Evert Bird, Susanna Ubelmans, Johanna Berens en Anthoni Ubelman, child Eduwart. 12-08-1668 GA Amsterdam, DTB 106/300, Baptismal Walenkerk. Everd Bird, Susanna Ubelmans, Isbrant Haringh, Johanna Berens, child Bartholomeus.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 500/361, Marriage announcement, 06-07-1674. Den 6 July 1674 compareerden voor de heeren van Loon en Tholinc commissarissen Eduart Bird van Amsterdam, toebacxpijpmaker, wedr. van Susanna Ubelmans, wonende op de Rosengracht ende Sophia Verbeecq, out 24 jaer, wonende op de N.Z. Voorburgwal, geasstr. met Matheus Verbeek, haar vader. Marge: Vrijd. hij heeft de 19 July 1674 de weeskamer voldaan en gaat voort 3 gebodt de 29 dito, acte verleent.
- GA Amsterdam, DTB 107/183, Baptismal Walenkerk, 24-04-1676. Evert Bird, Sophija Verbeeckx, Mattheus Verbeecx, Sara Verbeecx, Arnout Verbeecx, child Geertruy. 08-09-1680 GA Amsterdam, DTB 45/54, Baptismal Nieuwe Kerk. Everd Bird, Sophia Verbeek, Arnoldus Verbeek, Jacomina Hann, child Arnoldus.
- De Roever, 1987, p 58.
- D.H. Duco, Merken van Goudse pijpenmakers 1660-1940, Lochem, 1982, p 12.
- De Roever, 1987, p 60.
- GA Amsterdam, RA 2172, fol 223v, Execution remission, 01-02-1683. Wij uts. dat op den 1e februarii Ao. 1683 bij executie der zelver hede vercoft is, aen Grietje Willems en Jan Claesz. Kuijer haer man een huijs ende erve met drije achterhuijsen daer aen staende en leggende op de noordsijde van de Rosegraft, tusschen de tweede ende derde brugh gestr. met no. 1, belend d'erftgenamen van Jan Reijndersz. met een gemeene muer en looden goot en gemeenen schutting en no. 2 voor een gedeelte met een gemeen houte schot en aen no. 3 en Gerrit Huijge aen de achterhuijsen, muer tegens muer, of zoo de zelve bevonden mocht werden, te samen aen d'oostzijde en Wijbrand Pietersz. voor en vorders Pieter Block, ten deele met een gemeene schutting, te zamen aen de oostzijde, streckende voor van de straet en van de erfgenamen van Jan Rijnders en van Wijbrand Pietersz. met een gemeenen schutting tot achter aen de huijsen en erven van de Blomstraet. Voorts in allen schijne 't voorsz. huijs ende erven mede de drij achterhuijsen daeraen ter voorsz. plaetse gelegen is, geheijt en betimmert staet, toebehoord hebbende Everd Bort, pijpemaker, voor 3020 gulde die de voorsz. Grietje Willems en Jan Claesz. Kuijer te borden gebracht es den 14 maert Ao. 1685. Idem, fol 100. Wij uts. dat op den 1 februarii 1683 bij executie der zelver hede vercoft is aen Hendrik Blank, droogscheerder een huijs en zijn getimmerte, zijnde twee woningen ende erve, staende ende leggende op de noordzijde van de Roosegraft tussen de tweede en derde brug in den gemeene gangh tusschen het huijs no. 2 en Jan de Reus syn huijs in 't gaen aen de westzijde van de zelve gangh, gestr. met no. 3, belend no. 2, muer tegen muer aende suijdzijde en Gerrit Huyge muer tegen muer, of zoo dezelver bevonden mochte werden, aen de noordzijde, streckende voor van de gemeene gangh, die door een gedeelte van dezen huijse overtimmert is, tot achter aen no. 1, voorts in alle schijne dit perceel aldaer gelegen is, geheyt en betimmert staet (toebehoord hebbende Everd Bord, pijpemaker) voor 635 gulde. Die de voorsz. Hendrik Blanck te borde gebracht heeft den 14 Maert Ao. 1685.
- GA Amsterdam, Freeman book 8, fol 149, 26-11-1692. Evert Birt, merchant in wines, son of Everd Bird, alive pipe maker and freeman of Amsterdam. GA Amsterdam, DTB 538/171, Marriage announcement, 28-03-1705. Evert Birdt married Marretje Jacobs, widow of Albert Vonk. Idem, DTB 558/467, Marriage announcement, 29-081721. His widow Marritje Jacobs van der Sloot remarried Lucas Helt.
- GA Amsterdam, Freeman book 13, fol 5, 08-05-1714. Arnoldus Bird, merchant in wines, son of Evert Bird, alive pipe maker and freeman of Amsterdam. GA Amsterdam, DTB550/168, Marriage announcement, 07-04-1714. Married Anna van der Goot. Ditto, DTB 575/280, Marriage announcement, 10-12-1733. The widow Van der Goot married Jacobus Steurkamp.
- Duco, (Merken), 1982, p 14.